Faulty involved: Dr. Kamsali Nagaraja

Electrical processes in the lower atmosphere, in particular, within the planetary boundary layer, are important because these, together with global variations, determine the electrical environment of man and the biosphere. Galactic cosmic rays and various radioactive decays produce atmospheric ions that undergo complex ion-chemical reactions. The clarification of the atmospheric ions, their mobilities, and the physics of electrical processes in the entire atmosphere will require measurements, particularly in determining how these processes are affected by man’s activities and natural events. It is assumed that quasi-stationary state of the global electric circuit specified by permanent activity of thunderstorm generators that makes potential difference between electrodes of concentric spherical capacitor founded by conductive layers of lower ionosphere, ocean upper layer and Earth’s crust. The electrical state of the atmosphere depends on ionosphere potential, atmospheric column resistance, vertical electric current density and field strength, polar electric conductivities of air, thunderstorm electrical energy lifetime and vertical profiles of these electrical quantities.

The convection produced by the heat released owing to the condensation of water vapour in the cloud reinforces the turbulence. Strong turbulence occurs in clear air above the ABL. Turbulent flows in the atmosphere efficiently transport momentum, heat, and matter. The ABL and its turbulence are also important for the momentum and sensible and latent heat transfers between the surface and the atmosphere. These directly affect the diurnal cycle of the near-surface variables and also strongly impact on the life time of synoptic-scale systems. Appropriate representation of the overall effects by turbulence, either inside or outside the atmospheric boundary layer, is thus an essential part of atmospheric models dealing with the prediction and study of weather, climate, air quality, wind energy, and other environmental factors. Because of the small-scale features of atmospheric turbulence, there will always be important effects on the mean flow from scales smaller than the numerical grid cells of the models used. The challenge is to relate the new unknown terms to the forecast variables of the model. For unstable and convective boundary layers, nonlocal mixing effects are also typically required to properly represent the mixing processes. Turbulence closures can be of different order depending on the order of the terms that are parameterized, but in practice few are higher than second order in operational models. The laboratory is equipped with Automatic Weather Station, Mini Boundary Layer Mast, Atmospheric electricity measurement setups, Radiosonde Balloon facility to track weather upto 35 km in the atmosphere. On these streamline, studies on atmospheric dynamics, various weather phenomena, lightning activity, space weather and modelling studies are in progress.